International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences
Volume 9 (1986), Issue 4, Pages 807-810

Functional differential equations—a reciprocity principle

Lloyd K. Williams

Department of Mathematics, Texas Southern University, Houston 77004, Texas, USA

Received 2 January 1986

Copyright © 1986 Lloyd K. Williams. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The functional differential equations proposed for solution here are mainly ordinary differential equations with fairly general argument deviations. Included among them are equations with involutions and some with reflections of the argument. Solutions will be obtained by quadratures in terms of implicitly defined functions. They have a wide range of applicability from the stability theory of differential-difference equations to electrodynamics and biological models.