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\title{LaTeX Style Guide for the\\
{\it Journal of Integer Sequences}\\
\large Version 1.41}
\date{}
\author{}
\maketitle
Authors of papers in the {\it Journal of Integer Sequences} should
write their papers in English. If English is not your native language,
consider asking a native-speaking colleague or local native speaker to
help proofread your paper.
If you have no access to a native speaker, you can (for a fee) have
people read and edit your paper online. For example, visit
{\tt http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageservices/languageediting/}.
Authors of papers in the {\it Journal of Integer
Sequences} should prepare their papers in LaTeX. We do {\it not\/}
recommend use of
add-on packages such as Scientific Workplace. Please observe the
following guidelines.
\section{LaTex advice}
Please avoid the use of special-purpose macros whenever possible.
Strip your paper of references to any packages and definitions that you
do not actually use. (Do {\it not\/} just comment them out.)
Remove all commented lines.
It may be worthwhile to download the latex file for a paper already
published in the journal and model your paper on it. Do not use this
file as a model.
Do {\it not\/} include a date in the title page of your paper.
Use the default (Computer Modern) font. Do not use Times Roman or
other fonts.
Acknowledgments should be in a {\it separate, numbered
section} at the end of the paper.
Avoid the use of PicTeX; it uses too many registers and is often not
compatible with packages we use to publish your paper. If you absolutely have
to use it, consider the use of {\tt pictexwd} instead.
\section{Common Grammatical Errors}
Please {\bf be sure to run your paper through a spell-checker before
submission!} Our Journal uses American spellings.
\begin{enumerate}
\item Avoid the passive voice. Instead of saying ``In
[1] it is shown that all primes $> 2$ are odd'', say ``Smith [1] showed
that all primes $>2$ are odd''.
\item Avoid use of weak constructions such as ``this number'' or ``it''. For
example, instead of saying
Wrong: Let $x$ be a prime. We now square this number.
Right: Let $x$ be a prime. We now square $x$.
\item Avoid the use of constructions, such as ``don't'', ``can't'',
``isn't'', etc.
Wrong: The number $7$ is prime, since it isn't divisible by
$2, 3, 4, 5, $ or $6$.
Right: The number $7$ is prime, since it is not divisible by
$2, 3, 4, 5, $ or $6$.
\item The word ``precise'' is not a verb in English.
Wrong: We now precise the connection between
$\alpha$ and $\beta$.
Right: We now make the connection between
$\alpha$ and $\beta$ more precise.
\item Use the word ``expansion'', not ``development''.
Wrong: Let $[a_0, a_1, \ldots]$ be the continued fraction
development of $x$.
Right: Let $[a_0, a_1, \ldots]$ be the continued fraction
expansion of $x$.
\item Use ``associate with'', not ``associate to''.
Wrong: We now associate $x$ to $y$.
Right: We now associate $x$ with $y$.
\item Use ``root'' for equations, and ``zero'' for polynomials.
Wrong: Let $\alpha$ be the positive root of $x^2 - x - 1$.
Right: Let $\alpha$ be the positive zero of $x^2 - x - 1$.
Right: Let $\alpha$ be the positive root of $x^2 -x - 1 = 0$.
\item Use the term ``pair'', not ``couple'', to denote two objects.
Wrong: Let $(\alpha, \beta)$ be a couple of real numbers.
Right: Let $(\alpha, \beta)$ be a pair of real numbers.
\item Avoid run-on sentences. A run-on sentence is one that
expresses two thoughts in a single phrase. Fix by separating
into two or more sentences, or by connecting with a semi-colon
or a conjunction such as ``and''. More information can be found
in the Wikipedia article on run-on sentences.
Wrong: Let $\Sigma$ be a finite alphabet, $\Sigma^*$ denote the
set of all finite words over $\Sigma$.
Right: Let $\Sigma$ be a finite alphabet, and let
$\Sigma^*$ denote the set of all finite words over $\Sigma$.
Wrong: Let $p$ be a prime number $\geq 3$, then $2^p \equiv 2$ (mod $p$).
Right: Let $p$ be a prime number $\geq 3$. Then $2^p \equiv 2$ (mod $p$).
\item Avoid starting sentences or phrases with notation.
Wrong: $f$ maps integers to real numbers.
Right: The function $f$ maps integers to real numbers.
\item Avoid treating citation numbers as objects of prepositions.
Treat them syntactically like footnotes.
Wrong: In [1] it is proved that $e$ is irrational.
Wrong: The article [1] proves that $e$ is irrational.
Right: Euler [1] proved that $e$ is irrational.
\item Words like ``notation'', ``work'', and ``information'' are mass nouns in
English, and as such, rarely appear in the plural.
Wrong: We now introduce some definitions and notations.
Right: We now introduce some definitions and notation.
\bigskip
Wrong: You can find many works on continued fractions in the literature.
Right: You can find many papers on continued fractions in the literature.
The Wikipedia article on mass nouns contains more information.
\end{enumerate}
\section{Common punctuation errors}
\begin{itemize}
\item Use colons properly. Colons should not immediately follow
verbs.
Wrong: The resulting equation is:
$$ x = y^2 .$$
Right: The resulting equation is
$$ x = y^2 .$$
Right: The resulting equation is as follows:
$$ x = y^2.$$
\item Always put a comma after ``i.e.'' and ``e.g.''.
Wrong: Let $x$ be a minimal element i.e. an element such
that if $y \leq x$ then $y = x$.
Wrong: Let $x$ be a prime e.g. $2$.
Right: Let $x$ be a minimal element, i.e., an element such
that if $y \leq x$ then $y = x$.
Right: Let $x$ be a prime, e.g., $2$.
\item Avoid excessive and inappropriate capitalization.
Wrong: We let $H(x)$ denote the Hankel Transform of $x$.
Right: We let $H(x)$ denote the Hankel transform of $x$.
Wrong: Now we use the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.
Right: Now we use the Cayley-Hamilton theorem.
Wrong: The result follows by the Prime Number Theorem.
Right: The result follows by the prime number theorem.
Wrong: The Fibonacci Numbers are numbers satisfying the
recurrence...
Right: The Fibonacci numbers are numbers satisfying the
recurrence...
Wrong: We use the Euclidean Algorithm to compute $\gcd(m,n)$.
Right: We use the Euclidean algoritm to compute $\gcd(m,n)$.
\end{itemize}
\section{Common LaTeX Errors}
This section lists a few of the common errors made
when preparing papers in LaTeX.
\subsection{Blackboard Bold}
For blackboard bold symbols such as
$\mathbb Z$, $\mathbb Q$, $\mathbb R$, $\mathbb C$, use
{\tt \char'134mathbb\char'173Z\char'175}, for example. You may need to include
the command {\tt \char'134usepackage\char'173amssymb\char'175}.
\subsection{Variables and expressions}
Usually, variables such as $x$, $y$, $n$, etc., should appear
in the italic font. This will occur automatically if you remember
to enclose your equations (even references to a single variable) in
dollar signs or double-dollar signs, or use a latex equation environment.
\medskip
\noindent Wrong: {\tt Let n be the number of integers in the list.}
\noindent Right: {\tt Let \char'044 n\char'044\ be the number of integers in the list.}
\medskip
If a variable or expression ends a sentence, do {\it not\/} include the
period inside the {\tt \char'044\char'044}; doing so messes up the spacing.
\medskip
\noindent Right: {\tt And so the number of terms is \char'044n\char'044.} \\
\noindent Wrong: {\tt And so the number of terms is \char'044n.\char'044} \\
\subsection{Spacing}
Please try not to include any commands that tweak the spacing (such as
{\tt \char'134\char'134},
{\tt \char'134noindent}, {\tt \char'134newpage},
{\tt \char'134bigskip}, {\tt \char'134pagebreak}, {\tt \char'134linebreak},
etc.) since when your paper is formatted for final publication, the page
breaks and spacing will probably be quite different from what you currently
see. The proper way to separate paragraphs is with a single blank
line, and {\it not\/} with {\tt \char'134\char'134} at the end of the line.
Don't forget that \textbf{if a period follows a lower-case letter and does
not end a sentence}, then you must escape the period by putting
a {\tt \char'134} and then a space immediately after it. For example:
\medskip
\noindent Right:
{\tt We use a flern (cf.\char'134\ the previous theorem) in the proof.} \\
\noindent Wrong:
{\tt We use a flern (cf.\ the previous theorem) in the proof.} \\
\subsection{Accents}
Be careful to use the proper accents. The name
Erd\H{o}s, for example, uses a Hungarian accent, and
should be formatted with {\tt\char'134H}. The name
Sierpi\'nski needs an accent on the ``n''.
Create accents using
the LaTeX abbreviations; do
{\it not\/} use special UNICODE characters, keyboard shortcuts,
or other exotic character sets to make them.
\subsection{Floor and Ceiling}
Be sure to use the built-in \TeX\ commands
{\tt \char'134lfloor}, {\tt \char'134rfloor} and
{\tt \char'134lceil}, {\tt \char'134rceil}, not square brackets,
when using these integer functions.
\subsection{Min and Max}
Be sure to use the built-in \TeX\ commands
{\tt \char'134min} and {\tt \char'134max} when using these functions.
\subsection{Gcd and Lcm}
Be sure to use the built-in \TeX\ command {\tt\char'134gcd}
for greatest common divisor. Don't write $(a,b)$ for the gcd of $a$ and
$b$; write $\gcd(a,b)$ instead. For lcm, you will have to define
your own command so that it appears in the roman font. The best way
to do this is to use the command
{\tt \char'134DeclareMathOperator\char'173\char'134lcm\char'175\char'173lcm\char'175}
\subsection{Binomial coefficients}
Use {\tt\char'134choose} for binomial coefficients.
Do not use the latex array environment.
\subsection{Multi-letter functions}
As a general rule, all multi-letter functions such as $\sin, \cos, \tan,$, etc., should appear in the roman font. For these functions you can use
the built-in \TeX\ commands {\tt\char'134sin, \char'134cos, \char'134tan}, etc.,
but for others (e.g., {\rm Li} for the logarithmic integral)
you may have to define your own commands. Again, the best way to do this
is, e.g.,
{\tt \char'134DeclareMathOperator\char'173\char'134Li\char'175\char'173Li\char'175}
\subsection{Parentheses}
Use parentheses for grouping, not square brackets or braces.
You can get different sizes of parentheses using, for example,
{\tt \char'134bigl(} and {\tt \char'134bigr)}.
\subsection{Mod}
Observe the distinction between the use of ``mod'' as a function of
two arguments, mapping $a \bmod b$ to the least non-negative residue
of $a$ modulo $b$, and ``mod'' as an equivalence relation. For
the first, use the \TeX\ command {\tt\char'134bmod}. For the second,
use the \TeX\ command {\tt\char'134pmod} for displayed equations \textit{only};
for in-line equations write something like
\centerline{{\tt \char'044 x \char'134equiv a\char'044\
(mod \char'044b\char'044)},}
\noindent which typesets as follows: $x \equiv a$ (mod $b$). Do not
use notation like $x \equiv y \ [p]$.
\subsection{Quote marks}
Do not enclose words in ordinary quotation
marks {\tt "like this"}. This results in the following
ugly output:
\begin{center}
"like this"
\end{center}
Instead, use the left-quote and right-quote
symbols, {\tt ``like this''}, which gives the correct
\begin{center}
``like this'' .
\end{center}
\subsection{Sequences}
Use parentheses, not braces, to denote sequences. For example,
$(F_n)_{n \geq 0}$ is the correct way to write the Fibonacci sequence.
\subsection{Proper use of {\tt\char'134ldots} and {\tt\char'134cdots}}
Be sure to use {\tt\char'134ldots} and {\tt\char'134cdots} properly.
The general rule is as follows: you should use {\tt\char'134ldots} if
the center of mass of the items on either side is below the middle of
the line --- for example, if the items on either side are commas. You
should use {\tt \char'134cdots} if the center of mass of the items on
either side is in the middle of the line --- for example, if the items
on either side are alphabet symbols. For example:
\medskip
Wrong: Consider the product $a_1 a_2 \ldots a_n$. \ \ \ (Here we used {\tt \char'134ldots}.)
Right: Consider the product $a_1 a_2 \cdots a_n$. \ \ \ (Here we used {\tt \char'134cdots}.)
\bigskip
Wrong: Consider the sequence $a_1, a_2, \cdots, a_n$. \ \ \ (Here we used {\tt \char'134cdots}.)
Right: Consider the sequence $a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n$. \ \ \ (Here we used {\tt \char'134ldots}.)
\bigskip
Under {\it no\/}
circumstances should you ever write ``...''. Use the appropriate
dots command instead.
\subsection{Proper punctuation of case statements}
Please punctuate case statements as follows:
\begin{displaymath}
f(x) = \begin{cases}
1, & \text{if $x$ is irrational;} \\
0, & \text{otherwise.}
\end{cases}
\end{displaymath}
Do {\it not\/} use the {\tt array} environment to do case statements. Use
{\tt \char'134begin\char'173cases\char'175 ... \char'134end\char'173cases\char'175}. Within a case statement, use
{\tt \char'134text\char'173...\char'175},
not {\tt \char'134mathrm\char'173...\char'175}.
\section{Title page}
The title page should include the title of your article (capitalized),
and the complete address and affiliations, including academic
department and e-mail address,
for all authors.
(By ``capitalized'' we do not mean you should capitalize every letter
of every word; just the first letter of all nontrivial words.)
Write your name with the surname {\it last}; if it is
unclear which is your first name and which is your surname, please
indicate this in a comment.
\section{Definitions}
Terms that are being defined should be in a special font, such as italic
or slant.
For example,
\centerline{A {\it flern} is a 3-dimensional hypersquare.}
Avoid introducing new terms and notation when there are already accepted
equivalents widely in use in the mathematical community.
For example, for the Fibonacci numbers, you
should use the notation $F_n$, and the numbers defined by
$F_0 = 0$, $F_1 = 1$, $F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$ for $n \geq 2$.
\section{People}
When referring to people, \textbf{use their last name only}, unless additional
information is required to disambiguate. If you {\it do\/} include initials,
make sure there is a space between each initial and between the initials
and the name.
\medskip
\noindent Right: Euler proved that $e$ is irrational. \\
\noindent Wrong: L. Euler proved that $e$ is irrational.
\medskip
\noindent Right: J. R. Smith \\
\noindent Wrong: J.R. Smith \\
\noindent Wrong: J R Smith \\
\noindent Wrong: John R Smith
\section{Theorems}
Use the {\tt \char'134begin\char'173theorem\char'175} $\ldots$
and {\tt \char'134end\char'173theorem\char'175} environments for theorems,
lemmas, propositions, etc. Theorems should be numbered. Refer to theorems,
lemmas, propositions, sections, equations, tables etc.\ using
labels; do {\it not} hard-code references to them. When you
refer to theorems, definitions, propositions, and so forth, be sure
to capitalize the word Theorem (resp., Definition, Proposition, etc.) if
it is attached to a reference label (number), and not otherwise.
Do not put space characters in labels!
\noindent Right: We now use Theorem 4.\\
\noindent Wrong: We now use theorem 4.\\
\noindent Right: We now use a previous theorem.\\
\noindent Wrong: We now use a previous Theorem.\\
To get proper definitions, use the
{\tt \char'134usepackage\char'173amsthm\char'175} command.
\section{Equations}
Not all equations need to be numbered. If you number an equation,
use a label and then refer to the label using
{\tt (\char'134ref\char'173eq1\char'175)} or something similar. Do not use things like (*) to number equations.
\section{Definitions, Examples, and Remarks}
All definitions, examples, and remarks should be stated in the roman font,
except (of course) for any
mathematical symbols. You can use the following code as an example.
\noindent{\tt \char'134theoremstyle\char'173definition\char'175} \\
\noindent{\tt \char'134newtheorem\char'173defn\char'175\char'173Definition\char'175} \\
\section{Proofs}
Use the commands {\tt \char'134begin\char'173proof\char'175} and
{\tt \char'134end\char'173proof\char'175} to delimit proofs.
These are available in the {\tt amsthm} package mentioned above.
\section{Tables}
Tables should be {\bf centered} on the page, using the {\tt center}
environment. Each table should have a number.
\section{Introduction}
Papers should have an introductory section that provides motivation and
history of the problems discussed.
\section{Abstract}
Every paper should have a short abstract of 50 to 200 words. The
abstract should be written in the present tense, and should be free of
symbols and equations to the extent it is possible. \textbf{Avoid the
passive voice in abstracts, wherever reasonable.}
The abstract should be an independent entity and should stand on its
own. For example, it {\it should not\/} contain citations to the
bibliography, or references to the numbers of equations, theorems, or
sections of the paper. It should not contain numbered equations
itself.
When referring to other work in the abstract, you can refer to author's
names, but avoid mentioning years, journal names, or other
information.
\section{Sequence Numbers}
Be sure to include sequence numbers from Sloane's online {\it Encyclopedia
of Integer Sequences} for all sequences you discuss in your paper.
The list of all such sequences should be summarized at the end of your
paper, sorted in ascending order. If the sequences do not exist in the
{\it Encyclopedia}, please submit them to {\tt www.oeis.org}
and record the A-numbers assigned,
and add those to your paper.
\section{Citations}
Use citations syntactically like footnotes, not as objects of prepositions.
Avoid saying things like ``In [1] we find the following result.'' Instead,
say ``Jones [1] proved the following result.'' Use the LaTeX command
{\tt \char'134cite}; do {\it not\/} hard-code references to the bibliography.
If you cite a paper with many authors, you can use ``et al.'', but do
not put it in italics and use the first author's name.
In the bibliography, if the author has two initials, be sure
to place a space between the two initials.
Wrong: N.J.A. Sloane
Right: N. J. A. Sloane
\medskip
Two authors should be separated with ``and'':
Wrong: J. Smith, D. Jones
Right: J. Smith and D. Jones
\medskip
Three or more authors should be separated with the ``Oxford
comma''.
Right: J. Smith, D. Jones, and Z. Xu
Wrong: J. Smith, D. Jones and Z. Xu
\medskip
When simultaneously citing multiple references, use syntax
similar to {\tt \char'134cite\char'173ref1,ref2,ref3\char'175} to combine
all references in a single pair of brackets; do {\it not\/} write
{\tt \char'134cite\char'173ref1\char'175, \char'134cite\char'173ref2\char'175,
\char'134cite\char'173ref3\char'175}.
When citing a theorem or page number in another work, say
{\tt \char'134cite[p.\char'134\ 123]\char'173ref1\char'175} or something
similar. Note in particular the backslash and space after the dot. This is
needed because LaTeX assumes that a dot following a lowercase letter indicates
the end of a sentence, and hence inserts extra space.
Please use the following examples when preparing citations.
Pay careful attention to punctuation and the use of roman, italic,
and bold fonts. In particular, notice that page ranges should be separated
by two hyphens in LaTeX: write {\tt 123--145}, not {\tt 123-145}.
Please use the standard {\it Mathematical Reviews}
abbreviations for journal names, with the exception that for particularly
obscure journals you may provide the entire name.
The {\it Mathematical Reviews} journal abbreviation list can be
found here:
\centerline{\tt http://www.ams.org/msnhtml/serials.pdf}
Do not include citations to reviews of the articles, such as those
appearing in {\it Zentralblatt} or {\it Math. Reviews}.
Avoid references to secondary sources, such as Wikipedia, unless
there is really no alternative.
\subsection{Article citation}
1. J. Chan and F. E. Smith, An article about Chan-Smith numbers,
{\it J. of Chan-Smith Numbers} {\bf 13} (1998), 123--124.
\smallskip
Provide the volume, but {\bf not} the issue number, unless the issue
number is required to uniquely specify the paper. Note that words in article
titles should {\it not\/} be capitalized, with the following exceptions:
the first word, proper nouns, and German nouns. The journal name should
be in italics; the volume number should be in bold. Do not use ``pp.'' to
provide page numbers for articles. Use {\tt \char'055\char'055}
for page ranges.
\subsection{Book citation}
2. A. Alces, {\it Introduction to Moose Theory}, Springer, 1995.
\smallskip
Book titles should be in italics.
Note that words in book titles should be capitalized, with the exception of
very short unimportant words, such as ``to'', ``of'', ``and'', etc.
Do not include the ISBN number. It is not necessary to give the place
of publication unless it is a very rare or hard-to-find book.
If you cite a particular theorem or page or section inside a book,
then use the bibliography to list the book information {\it only}.
When you cite it, however, you can use syntax like
{\tt \char'134cite[Thm.{\char'134} 2.3,
p.{\char'134} 45]\char'173Alces\char'175}
to get something like [17, Thm.\ 2.3, p.\ 45].
\subsection{Article in Conference Proceedings or Book}
3. B. Franklin, The public library as an aid to research,
in G. Washington and T. Jefferson, eds., {\it Public Libraries in
the United States}, Addison-Wesley, 2001, pp.\ 16--32.
\medskip
\noindent 4. P. Flajolet, How to count, in {\it Automata, Languages, and
Programming: Proc.\ ICALP 1990}, Lect.\ Notes in Comp.\ Sci.,
Vol.\ 443, Springer, 1991, pp.\ 220--234.
\smallskip
Capitalize the name of the book, but {\it not\/} the paper you are referring to
in the book. Note that here, unlike the case of a journal article, the
abbreviation ``pp.'' is used.
\subsection{Unpublished Material or Material on the Web}
5. B. Obama, G. Bush, and W. J. Clinton,
Combinatorial reasoning in American elections,
preprint, {\tt http://www.barackobama.com/combin.pdf}.
\medskip
\noindent 6. J. Schmoe, Pattern avoidance, preprint,
{\tt http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.2222}.
\smallskip
You should use the command {\tt \char'134url} to specify the URL of
electronic manuscripts. (This command is available in
the {\tt hyperref} package.)
Do {\it not\/} use syntax like
{\tt arXiv:1357.2468}.
Note that the correct URL for the Online
Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences is {\tt http://oeis.org}.
\section{Other Issues}
All sections of your paper should be numbered. Do {\it not\/}
hard-code references to section numbers; give each section a label
and refer to it.
Please be sure that your paper contains a list of {\it key words
and phrases} and the appropriate
{\it 2000 Mathematics Subject Classifications}. The key words should be in
the singular (e.g., write ``Fibonacci number'' and not ``Fibonacci numbers''.)
A list of all the subject
classifications can be found at
{\tt http://www.ams.org/msnhtml/classification.pdf}. {\bf Provide only
one classification as primary} and any additional ones as secondary.
Avoid starting a line of your file with the word ``From''. Many mailers
insert a $>$ character in such lines, causing a question mark to appear
in your text. If you must start a line of the file with the
word ``From'', you can insert a space first.
Do not include any UNICODE special characters in your file. These can arise,
for example, from cutting and pasting references from the web.
Check to make sure, for example, that dashes are represented by
{\tt --} or {\tt ---} and not special UNICODE characters.
\end{document}