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MATHEMATICA BOHEMICA, Vol. 127, No. 4, pp. 557-570 (2002)
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# On $k$-strong distance in strong digraphs

## Ping Zhang

* Ping Zhang*, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA, e-mail: ` ping.zhang@wmich.edu`

**Abstract:**
For a nonempty set $S$ of vertices in a strong digraph $D$, the strong distance $d(S)$ is the minimum size of a strong subdigraph of $D$ containing the vertices of $S$. If $S$ contains $k$ vertices, then $d(S)$ is referred to as the $k$-strong distance of $S$. For an integer $k \geq 2$ and a vertex $v$ of a strong digraph $D$, the $k$-strong eccentricity $\se _k(v)$ of $v$ is the maximum $k$-strong distance $d(S)$ among all sets $S$ of $k$ vertices in $D$ containing $v$. The minimum $k$-strong eccentricity among the vertices of $D$ is its $k$-strong radius $\srad _k D$ and the maximum $k$-strong eccentricity is its $k$-strong diameter $\sdiam _k D$. The $k$-strong center ($k$-strong periphery) of $D$ is the subdigraph of $D$ induced by those vertices of $k$-strong eccentricity $\srad _k(D)$ ($\sdiam _k (D)$). It is shown that, for each integer $k \geq 2$, every oriented graph is the $k$-strong center of some strong oriented graph. A strong oriented graph $D$ is called strongly $k$-self-centered if $D$ is its own $k$-strong center. For every integer $r \geq 6$, there exist infinitely many strongly 3-self-centered oriented graphs of 3-strong radius $r$. The problem of determining those oriented graphs that are $k$-strong peripheries of strong oriented graphs is studied.

**Keywords:** strong distance, strong eccentricity, strong center, strong periphery

**Classification (MSC2000):** 05C12, 05C20

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