J.-L. Loday introduced the concept of coherent unit actions on a regular operad and showed that such actions give Hopf algebra structures on the free algebras. Hopf algebras obtained this way include the Hopf algebras of shuffles, quasi-shuffles and planar rooted trees. We characterize coherent unit actions on binary quadratic regular operads in terms of linear equations of the generators of the operads. We then use these equations to classify operads with coherent unit actions. We further show that coherent unit actions are preserved under taking products and thus yield Hopf algebras on the free object of the product operads when the factor operads have coherent unit actions. On the other hand, coherent unit actions are never preserved under taking the dual in the operadic sense except for the operad of associative algebras.
Keywords: dendriform algebras, coherent unit actions, regular operads, Hopf algebras
2000 MSC: 18D50, 17A30, 16W30
Theory and Applications of Categories,
Vol. 18, 2007,
No. 13, pp 348-371.