International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences
Volume 17 (1994), Issue 1, Pages 47-58
On quasi-ideals of semirings
Institut für Mathematik, Technische Universität Clausthal, Erzstraße 1, Clausthal-Zellerfeld DW-3392, Germany
Received 28 September 1992; Revised 23 February 1993
Copyright © 1994 Christoph Dönges. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Several statements on quasi-ideals of semirings are given in this paper, where these semirings may have an absorbing element or not. In Section 2 we characterize regular semirings and regular elements of semi-rings using quasi-ideals (cf. Thms. 2.1, 2.2 and 2.7). In Section 3 we deal with minimal and canonical quasi-ideals. In particular, if the considered semiring is semiprime or quasi-reflexive, we present criterions which allow to decide easily whether an minimal quasi-ideal of is canonical (cf. Thms. 3.4 and 3.8). If is an arbitrary semiring, we prove that for minimal left and right ideals and of the product is either or a canonical quasi-ideal of (Thm. 3.9). Moreover, for each canonical quasi-ideal of a semiring and each element , is either or again a canonical quasi-ideal of (Thm. 3.11), and the product of canonical quasi-ideals , of is either or again a canonical quasi-ideal of (Thm. 3.12). Corresponding results to those given here for semirings are mostly known as well for rings as for semigroups, but often proved by different methods. All proofs of our paper, however, apply simultaneously to semirings, rings and semigroups (cf. Convention 1.1), and we also formulate our results in a unified way for these three cases. The only exceptions are statements on semirings and semigroups without an absorbing element , which cannot have corresponding statements on rings since each ring has its zero as an absorbing element.